Repealing National Monuments? Why Tribal People Should Care!

Mr. Trump has ordered a review of many National Monuments that are protected under the Antiquities Act of 1906. The law was enacted in 1906 to prevent looting of Indian artifacts from archaeological sites. The act has mostly been used since then by presidents to turn public land into national monuments protected forever from commercial development or future mineral exploitation.

Devils Tower

President Theodore Roosevelt, who signed the Antiquities Act into law, created 18 monuments, including the Grand Canyon and Olympic National Park in Washington, totaling more than a million acres. Since then many more National Monuments have been created. The only such National Monument in Oregon being Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument, Oregon, W. Clinton, 2000 (BLM). Obama created 28 National Monuments over his 2 terms in office. Trump’s administration is currently reviewing all National Monuments with an eye to reducing or eliminating a number of them, and turning their lands over to private oil and natural gas extraction as well as logging and coal extraction. This past week there was a visit to the Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument by Secretary Zinke. Many public comment periods are over, and the fate of many National Monuments hang in the balance

Grand Canyon

These National Monuments are some of the most threatened archaeological sites in the United States. Their Native cultural resources are subject to destruction by hoards of tourists and to theft of artifacts by pot hunters. This is the reason these lands were set aside, to permanently protect the archaeological resources. These are our brother and sister tribes for most of us. Bears Ears and Cascade-Siskiyou as well as a number of Obama era designations are threatened because as the most recently designated they have less infrastructure built up around them and their elimination would cause less economic and political problems for the administration. But a reduction or elimination of the  National Monuments would mean there would no longer be protection for the archaeology and species diversity in these areas.

We have numerous other sites in Oregon that qualify for National Monument status. Cascadia Caves in western Oregon is one such property. Before it was inundated behind the Dalles Dam, Celilo Falls was eligible because of its long-term use by the tribes to fish for salmon.

Bears Ears

Tribes on reservation have little control over their ceded lands. Tribes are allowed to critically respond to proposals to change a status or create or eliminate a monument. But it is in the various environmental and archaeological protection acts that tribes have a lot of power. If the government were to eliminate these monuments it would be a serious blow to tribal rights to have their archaeological resources protected. Then, if the administration were to eliminate all or some of the protection bills and acts, this would turn lands over to private corporations to exploit and destroy tribal cultural resources without tribes having any say. This is the apparent intention of the present administration, and this is a direct threat to Tribal sovereignty.

Colorado

These lands are all original homelands of the indigenous peoples of these areas. Its time for the tribes to speak up and object to every attempt to eliminate our rights to protect our resources. Talk to your tribal council today.

Cascade-Siskiyou

The following is the list of all National Monuments created under the Antiquities Act of 1906

Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming, T. Roosevelt, 1906 (NPS)

El Morro National Monument, New Mexico, T. Roosevelt, 1906 (NPS)

Montezuma Castle National Monument, Arizona, T. Roosevelt, 1906 (NPS)

Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, T. Roosevelt, 1906 (NPS)

Chaco Culture National Historical Park (originally Chaco Canyon), New Mexico, T. Roosevelt, 1907 (NPS)

Lassen Volcanic National Park (originally Cinder Cone), California, T. Roosevelt, 1907 (NPS)

Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, T. Roosevelt, 1907 (NPS)

Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico, T. Roosevelt, 1907 (NPS)

Tonto National Monument, Arizona, T. Roosevelt, 1907 (NPS)

Muir Woods National Monument, California, T. Roosevelt, 1908 (NPS)

Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, T. Roosevelt, 1908 (NPS)

Pinnacles National Park, California, T. Roosevelt, 1908 (NPS)

Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota, T. Roosevelt, 1908 (NPS)

Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah, T. Roosevelt, 1908 (NPS)

Lewis and Clark Caverns State Park, Montana, T. Roosevelt, 1908 (State of Montana)

Tumacacori National Historical Park, Arizona, T. Roosevelt, 1908 (NPS)

Portion of Rio Grande National Forest (originally Wheeler), Colorado, T. Roosevelt, 1908 (BLM)

Olympic National Park (originally Mount Olympus), Washington, T. Roosevelt, 1909 (NPS)

Navajo National Monument, Arizona, W. Taft, 1909 (NPS)

Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve, Oregon, W. Taft, 1909 (NPS)

Zion National Park (originally Mukuntu-Weap), Utah, W. Taft, 1909 (NPS)

Spirit Mountain Cave (originally Shoshone Cavern), Wyoming, W. Taft, 1909 (BLM)

Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument (originally Gran Quivira), New Mexico, W. Taft, 1909 (NPS)

Sitka National Historical Park, Alaska, W. Taft, 1910 (NPS)

Rainbow Bridge National Monument, Utah, W. Taft, 1910 (NPS)

Big Hole National Battlefield, Montana, W. Taft, 1910 (NPS)

Colorado National Monument, Colorado, W. Taft, 1911 (NPS)

Devils Postpile National Monument, California, W. Taft, 1911 (NPS)

Cabrillo National Monument, California, W. Wilson, 1913 (NPS)

Papago Park (originally Papago Saguaro), Arizona, W. Wilson, 1914 (State of Arizona)

Dinosaur National Monument, Utah, Colorado, W. Wilson, 1915 (NPS)

Walnut Canyon National Monument, Arizona, W. Wilson, 1915 (NPS)

Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, W. Wilson, 1916 (NPS)

Acadia National Park (originally Sieur de Monts), Maine, W. Wilson, 1916 (NPS)

Capulin Volcano National Monument, New Mexico, W. Wilson, 1916 (NPS)

Portion of Tongass National Forest (originally Old Kasaan), Alaska, W. Wilson, 1916 (USFS)

Crow Flies High Overlook (originally Verendrye), North Dakota, W. Wilson, 1917 (State of North Dakota)

Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Arizona, W. Wilson, 1918 (NPS)

Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska, W. Wilson, 1918 (NPS)

Scotts Bluff National Monument, Nebraska, W. Wilson, 1919 (NPS)

Yucca House National Monument, Colorado, W. Wilson, 1919 (NPS)

Great Basin National Park (originally Lehman Caves), Nevada, W. Harding, 1922 (NPS)

Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, W. Harding, 1922 (NPS)

Fossil Cycad National Monument, South Dakota, W. Harding, 1922 (BLM)

Aztec Ruins National Monument, New Mexico, W. Harding, 1923 (NPS)

Hovenweep National Monument, Utah, Colorado, W. Harding, 1923 (NPS)

Hopewell Culture National Historical Park (originally Mound City Group), Ohio, W. Harding, 1923 (NPS)

Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona, W. Harding, 1923 (NPS)

Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, W. Harding, 1923 (NPS)

Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, C. Coolidge, 1923 (NPS)

Chiricahua National Monument, Arizona, C. Coolidge, 1924 (NPS)

Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho, C. Coolidge, 1924 (NPS, BLM)

Statue of Liberty National Monument (originally Fort Wood), New York, C. Coolidge, 1924 (NPS)

Castle Pinckney, South Carolina, C. Coolidge, 1924 (State of South Carolina)

Fort Pulaski National Monument, Georgia, C. Coolidge, 1924 (NPS)

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (originally Fort Marion), Florida, C. Coolidge, 1924 (NPS)

Fort Matanzas National Monument, Florida, C. Coolidge, 1924 (NPS)

Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, C. Coolidge, 1924 (NPS)

Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail (originally Meriwether Lewis), Tennessee, C. Coolidge, 1925 (NPS)

Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, C. Coolidge, 1925 (NPS)

Portion of Old Fort Niagara State Park (originally Father Millet Cross), New York, C. Coolidge, 1925 (State of New York)

Lava Beds National Monument, California, C. Coolidge, 1925 (NPS)

Arches National Park, Utah, H. Hoover, 1929 (NPS)

Portion of White River National Forest (originally Holy Cross), Colorado, H. Hoover, 1929 (USFS)

Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Arizona, H. Hoover, 1930 (NPS)

Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, H. Hoover, 1932 (NPS)

Grand Canyon National Park (originally Grand Canyon “II”), Arizona, H. Hoover, 1932 (NPS)

White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, H. Hoover, 1933 (NPS)

Death Valley National Park, California, Nevada, H. Hoover, 1933 (NPS)

Saguaro National Park, Arizona, H. Hoover, 1933 (NPS)

Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, Colorado, H. Hoover, 1933 (NPS)

Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah, F. D. Roosevelt, 1933 (NPS)

Dry Tortugas National Park (originally Fort Jefferson), Florida, F. D. Roosevelt, 1935 (NPS)

Joshua Tree National Park, California, F. D. Roosevelt, 1936 (NPS)

Zion National Park (originally Zion “II”, Utah, F. D. Roosevelt, 1937 (NPS)

Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, F. D. Roosevelt, 1937 (NPS)

Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, F. D. Roosevelt, 1937 (NPS)

Channel Islands National Park, California, F. D. Roosevelt, 1938 (NPS)

Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming, F. D. Roosevelt, 1938 (NPS)

Gulf Islands National Seashore (originally Santa Rosa Island), Florida, F. D. Roosevelt, 1939 (NPS)

Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona, F. D. Roosevelt, 1939 (NPS)

Grand Teton National Park (originally Jackson Hole), Wyoming, F. D. Roosevelt, 1943 (NPS)

Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa, H. Truman, 1949 (NPS)

Thomas Edison National Historical Park (originally Edison Laboratory), New Jersey, D. Eisenhower, 1956 (NPS)

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, D. Eisenhower, 1961 (NPS)

Russell Cave National Monument, Alabama, J. Kennedy, 1961 (NPS)

Buck Island Reef National Monument, Virgin Islands, J. Kennedy, 1961 (NPS)

Grand Canyon National Park (originally Marble Canyon), Arizona, L. Johnson, 1969 (NPS)

Portion of Tongass National Forest (originally Admiralty Island), Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (USFS)

Aniakchak National Monument & Preserve, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (FWS)

Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Denali National Park, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Portion of Tongass National Forest (originally Misty Fjords), Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (USFS)

Noatak National Preserve, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Wrangall-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (NPS)

Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, J. Carter, 1978 (FWS)

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah, W. Clinton, 1996 (BLM)

Agua Fria National Monument, Arizona, W. Clinton, 2000 (BLM)

California Coastal National Monument, California, W. Clinton, 2000 (BLM)

Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona, W. Clinton, 2000 (BLM)

Portion of Sequoia National Forest (originally Giant Sequoia), California, W. Clinton, 2000 (USFS)

Canyon of the Ancients National Monument, Colorado, W. Clinton, 2000 (BLM)

Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument, Oregon, W. Clinton, 2000 (BLM)

Hanford Reach National Monument, Washington, W. Clinton, 2000 (FWS)

Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona, W. Clinton, 2000 (BLM)

President Lincoln and Soldier’s Home National Monument, Washington, DC, W. Clinton, 2000 (NPS)

Vermillion Cliffs National Monument, Arizona, W. Clinton, 2000 (BLM)

Carrizo Plain National Monument, California, W. Clinton, 2001 (BLM)

Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, New Mexico, W. Clinton, 2001 (BLM)

Minidoka National Historic Site, Idaho, W. Clinton, 2001 (NPS)

Pompeys Pillar National Monument, Montana, W. Clinton, 2001 (BLM)

Sonoran Desert National Monument, Arizona, W. Clinton, 2001 (BLM)

Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument, Montana, W. Clinton, 2001 (BLM)

Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, Virgin Islands, W. Clinton, 2001 (NPS)

Governors Island National Monument, New York, W. Clinton, 2001 (NPS)

African Burial Ground National Monument, New York, G. W. Bush, 2006 (NPS)

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (originally Northwestern Hawaiian Islands), Hawaii, G. W. Bush, 2006 (FWS, NOAA)

World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, Hawaii, G. W. Bush, 2008 (NPS, FWS)

Rose Atoll National Monument, American Samoa, G. W. Bush, 2009 (NOAA)

Pacific Remote Islands National Monument, Hawaii, G. W. Bush, 2009 (FWS, NOAA)

Mariana’s Trench National Monument, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, G. W. Bush, 2009 (NOAA)

Fort Monroe National Monument, Virginia, B. H. Obama, 2011 (NPS)

Fort Ord National Monument, California, B. H. Obama, 2012 (BLM)

Chimney Rock National Monument, Colorado, B. H. Obama, 2012 (USFS)

Cesar E. Chavez National Monument, California, B. H. Obama, 2012 (NPS)

San Juan Islands National Monument, Washington, B. H. Obama, 2013 (BLM)

Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, New Mexico, B. H. Obama, 2013 (BLM)

Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park, Maryland, B. H. Obama, 2013 (NPS, FWS)

First State National Historical Park, Delaware, B. H. Obama, 2013 (NPS)

Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers Monument, Ohio, B. H. Obama, 2013 (NPS)

Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks National Monument, New Mexico, B. H. Obama, 2014 (BLM)

San Gabriel Mountains National Monument, California, B. H. Obama, 2014 (USFS)

Honouliuli National Monument, Hawaii, B. H. Obama, 2015 (NPS)

Pullman National Monument, Illinois, B. H. Obama, 2015 (NPS)

Browns Canyon National Monument, Colorado, B. H. Obama, 2015 (BLM, USFS)

Berryessa Snow Mountain National Monument, California, B. H. Obama, 2015 (USFS)

Waco Mammoth National Monument, Texas, B. H. Obama, 2015 (NPS)

Basin and Range National Monument, Nevada, B. H. Obama, 2015 (BLM)

Mojave Trails National Monument, California, B. H. Obama, 2016 (BLM)

Sand to Snow National Monument, California, B. H. Obama, 2016 (USFS)

Castle Mountains National Monument, California, B. H. Obama, 2016 (NPS)

Belmont-Paul Women’s Equality National Monument, Washington, DC, B. H. Obama, 2016 (NPS)

Stonewall National Monument, New York, B. H. Obama, 2016 (NPS)

Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument, Maine, B. H. Obama, 2016 (NPS)

Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument, Massachusetts, B. H. Obama, 2016 (NOAA, FWS)

Bears Ears National Monument, Utah, B. H. Obama, 2016 (USFS, BLM)

Gold Butte National Monument, Nevada, B. H. Obama, 2016 (BLM)

Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument, Alabama, B. H. Obama, 2017 (NPS)

Freedom Riders National Monument, Alabama, B. H. Obama, 2017 (NPS)

Reconstruction Era National Monument, South Carolina, B. H. Obama, 2017 (NPS)


BLM = Bureau of Land Management

FWS = Fish and Wildlife Service

NOAA = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NPS = National Park Service

USFS = Forest Service

The Land is our Heart- act now to protect our tribal sovereignty!

Over 200 articles on Tribal history are published on the blog site https://ndnhistoryresearch.wordpress.com

by David G. Lewis, Anthropologist & Educator

To Stay updated on Facebook join https://www.facebook.com/DavidLewis4TC/ and https://www.facebook.com/theoregonterritory/

 

Parts of this essay from: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/26/climate/antiquities-act-federal-lands-donald-trump.html

Other parts gathered from: https://www.npca.org/resources/2658-monuments-protected-under-the-antiquities-act#sm.000006zdbw2iidd39w4alclbgkagw

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