Recognizing Tribal Chiefs from the 19th Century

Tribes have their own holidays. As sovereign nations the events and dates significant to the tribes are dates of their establishment, dates of their treaties and date of restoration and termination,and important people. Some events are not necessarily celebratory, like a termination date, or even a date of removal from our homelands to the reservation, but more relevant to the tribe to remember the pain and suffering that tribes have endured during colonization. Beginning in the 1990s, about the time of the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus “happened upon” the Americas, tribal people began working on modifications to the national holidays that seen as huge negatives to Native peoples. Columbus Day was renamed Indigenous People’s Day at the University of Oregon by the native student organizations and celebrated that way with a day of speakers. This project of renaming these holidays is now being picked up by cities like Seattle and Portland.

There is one day that has interested me for years, Presidents’ Day. A collaboration of several president’s birthdays into one day of celebration. Tribes have renamed this day internally as Tribal Chiefs’ or Tribal Leaders’ Day.  But in my experience there are few details ever noted about tribal chiefs and leaders. I know we had many of them over the last few centuries in Oregon, but who were they? For a population of Native people hungry for information about Tribal histories, I have composed a list of over 100 such leaders for the Grand Ronde Tribe.

The chiefs listed in the following table are only those who appear in treaties of the tribe or who are well known previous to the reservations with published accounts. The extent of this list is only 19th century. For those leaders of the tribe that deserve listing from the 1870s and into the 20th century we will have to expand the table. In the 1870s the Grand Ronde tribe adopted an elective government and elected representatives of the various tribes to sit on the council. All of the elected leaders from those early councils into the 20th century deserve mention. In 1935 the tribe adopted Indian Reorganization, and a constitution with an elected Business committee. The records from this time are incomplete and need to be assembled. And then there are the Council of the tribe from the 1970s to the present, the Restoration era.

My own family history has many relations to several chiefs and leaders of the Santiam tribe, Captain Santiam, and John B. Hudson. John B Hudson was a leader of the Grand Ronde in the 20th century, the last speaker of Kalapuya.  In the 1970s, and probably earlier, Gertrude (Hudson) Mercier was a cultural leader and political leader at Grand Ronde in the restoration era. Several people, aunts, uncles, cousins, in my related families of the Hudson and Mercier lines were elected leaders, traditional chiefs, and cultural leaders in the 19th and 20th centuries.

I hope in the future to add further references to the table.

Chiefs of Grand Ronde Table (incomplete)

 

Record #
Common Name Name variants Title Tribe/band Documents signed
1 Kiakuts Ki-A-kuts,

Ki-ac-Kuts,

Ki-a-cut (1851)

Head Chief, first Chief

Principal Chief (1851)

Tualatin (Qualichah), Wapato Lake, Chehalem Band

Tualatin band of Calapooias

Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855

Twalaty Treaty April 19,1851

2 Le Medecin, Doctor,

La Medicine (1851)

Second Chief Tualatin band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855,

Twalaty Treaty April 19,1851

3 Wapato Dave Wapito Dave, Yat-Skaw, or Dave,Yats-kow Third Chief Tualatin band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
4 Kno-tah Subordinate Chief Twalaty Treaty April 19,1851
5 Shap-h, or William First Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
6 Yah-whos alias Thomas Principal Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
7 Es to le alias Henry Subordinate Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
8 Ai-tip alias Antoine Subordinate Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
9 Peter Sulkey Peter Sulkey (Shelkeah, David) Second Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
10 Cha-ah, or Jesse Third Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
11 Dabo, or Jim, Daboe (1851) First Chief, Principal Chief Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
12 Sco-la-quit, or John, Scho-la-que (1851) Second Chief

subordinate

Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
13 Yah-kow or Kompetine, Yoh-kow (1851) Third Chief

subordinate

Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
14 Ah-mo, or George First Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
15 Himpher, or Hubbard Second Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
16 Oh-no, or Tim Third Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
17 Ma-mah-mo, or Charley Peter First Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
18 Quineflat, or Ben Third Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
19 Cha-che-clue, or Tom Second Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
20 Luck-a-ma-foo, or Antoine, First Chief Che-lam-e-la or Long Tom band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
21 Hoo-til, or Charley Second Chief Che-lam-e-la or Long Tom band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
22 Qui-a-qua-ty, Quia-quaty, Quai-eck-e-te (1851) First Chief

Principal Chief

Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Treaty with Mollalle May 6, 1851
23 Chief Yelkas Yalkus Second Chief Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Treaty with Mollalle May 6, 1851
24 Kow-ka-ma, or Long Hair, Kaw-ka-ma Third Chief Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
25 Crooked Finger Subordinate Chief Mollalle Tribe Treaty with Mollalle May 6, 1851
26 Kiles, or Jim First Chief Calapooia band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
27 Kow-ah-tough, or John Second Chief Calapooia band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
28 Anta-, An-ta First Chief Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
29 Quil-al-la, or John Second Chief Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
30 Mequah or Dick Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
31 Yack-a-tee, or Sam, , First Chief Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
32 To-phor, or Jim Brown Second Chief Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
33 Hal-la-be, or Doctor, Hal-la-le Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
34 Pulk-tah Second Chief Chafan band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
35 Chief Tumulth Tum-walth First Chief Wah-lal-la band of Tum-waters

Cascades tribe

Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
36 Obanahah O-ban-a-hah Second Chief Wah-lal-la band of Tum-waters

Cascades Tribe

Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
37 Chief John Wachino Watch-a-no, Chief John Wachino First Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
38 Te-ap-i-nick Second Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
39 Wal-lah-pi-coto, Wal-lah-pi-cate Third Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
40 Oregon City John Lallak, Lal-bick or John, Oregon City John Clow-we-wal-la or Willamette Tum-water band; Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
41 Cuck-a-man-na or David Clow-we-wal-la or Willamette Tum-water band; Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
42 Tiacan Tow-ye-col-la, or Louis First Chief Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
43 Joseph Hutchins Yelk-ma, or Jo, Alquema, Joseph Hutchins, Joseph Hudson Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
44 La-ham, or Tom, Third Chief Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
45 Joseph Sangretta Joseph Sanegertta, Joseph Sangretta, Senegertta Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
46 Pullican, Pul-i-can Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
47 Te-na, or Kiles, Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
48 Pul-kup-li-ma, or John, Pul-kup-ti-ma Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
49 Sallaf, or Silas Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
50 Hoip-ke-nek, or Jack Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
51 Yepta, Yeptah Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
52 Sat-invose or James, Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
53 So-pham Santiam Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
54 Chief Coastno Coast-nah (1851) Principal Chief Santiam Band of Moolalle Santiam Moolalle Treaty of May 7 1851
55 Chasta Tom Shasta or Chasta Costa
56 Wakaiisisse Columbia River
57 James Selquia (Selqia) Sub-chief Wapato Band
58 Shmohult Klamath
59 LeSekes Klamath
60 Chief Kiesno Chief Keosnose

Kiesno, Cassino, Ciasno,

Principal Chief Columbia River

Multnomah, Sauvie Island

Numerous accounts 1805-1848
61 Polk Scott Polk Scott Yoncalla Shaman, Organizer of Numerous Camp meetings in the Willamette Valley, including Pleasant Hill, and Cottage Grove
62 Chief Jo Chief Jo, Aps-er-ka-har, Jo-aps-er-ka-har, Aps-so-ka-hah, Horse-rider, or Jo Head Chief principal chief Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Amendment 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
63 Sam To-qua-he-ar, Sam To-qua-he-ar, Ko-ko-ha-wah, Wealthy, or Sam, Subordinate Chief

Second chief

Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854, Itchkadowa, Applegate Band of Rogue River Indians (applegate Rpt)
64 Chief John Te-cum-tom, Elk Killer, or John, Ana-chah-a-rah, John

Tyee John

Fourth Chief Takelma

Shasta

Athapaskan

Rogue River 1853

Rogue River 1854

Principal Chief of the battle of Big Bend

65 Chol-cul-tah, Joquah Trader, or George Takelma Rogue river 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
66 Jim Ana-cha-a-rah Subordinate Chief Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
67 Lympe Takelma Rogue River 1853
68 Sambo Third Chief Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
69 Te-wah-hait, or Elijah Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
70 Telum-whah, or Bill Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
71 Hart-tish, or Applegate John Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
72 Qua-chis, or Jake Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
73 Tom Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
74 Henry Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
75 Louis Nepisank Napesa, or Louis, Na-pe-se, Louis Nepissank, Louis la Pe Cinque Head Chief Umpqua Tribe Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
76 Peter, or Injice , Peter McCoy (McKay?) Second Chief Umpqua tribe Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
77 Chief George, Cheen-len-ten or George Head Chief Umpqua Tribes Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854,

Treaty with the Molala 1855

78 Tas-yah, or General Jackson Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
79 Nessick Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854,

Treaty with the Molala 1855

80 Et-na-ma or William, Billy (Molala?) Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854,

Treaty with the Molala 1855

81 Nas-yah or John Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
82 Absaquil or Chenook Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
83 Jo Yoncalla Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
84 Tom Chief Yoncalla Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
85 Chief Halo Halo, Halito

Cama-phee-ma, Fearn

Head Chief Yoncalla
86 Chief Bogus Chief Bogus Umpqua Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
87 Quin-ti-oo-san, or Bighead principal chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
88 My-n-e-letta, or Jackson Subordinate Chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
89 Tom, son of Quin-ti-oo-san, Subordinate Chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
90 Tom, Tal-sa-pe-er Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
91 Steencoggy Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
92

 

Lattchie Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
93 Dugings Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
94 Counisnase Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
95 Cars Calapooia or Umpqua? Treaty with the Molala 1855
96 Jes-tul-tut, or Little Chief Quil-si-eton band, of the Chasta tribe of Indians, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
97 Ko-ne-che-quot, or Bill Na-hel-ta band of the Chasta tribe of Indians, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
98 Se-sel-che-tel, or Salmon Fisher, Se-sel-chetl Cow-nan-ti-co, bands of Scotons, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
99 Kul-ki-am-i-na, or Bush-head, Kul-ke-am-ina, Bushland Sa-cher-i-ton, band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
100 Te-po-kon-ta, or Sam Na-al-ye band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
101 Jo Chief Grave Creek band of Umpquas Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
102 Bas-ta-shin Sa-cher-i-ton, band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
103 Chief Tomaquin Tomaquin Principal Chief Cascades Came from the Clatsop
104 Capt. Santiam Santiam, Capt. Santiam, Principal Chief Santiam Kalapuya Albany area, allotments at Grand Ronde.

 

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4 thoughts on “Recognizing Tribal Chiefs from the 19th Century

  1. It would be nice to see some pictures to go with names. Tumulth is my Grandfather. I know there was at least one picture tooken of him.

    Like

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