Recognizing the Sacred- Our Tribal Leaders

Chief Alquema
Chief Alquema, 1851

Tribes are sovereign governments. All tribes have their unique history. Their history is unique in many ways from that of the colonial countries that took over their lands. All tribes in the United States and Canada have history before this colonization and a new history afterwards. The new history, whether 400 years old or 100 years old include the removal of the tribes from their traditional lands, the subjugation of their people to new cultures and ways of learning, and a modification of their lifeways. At one dimension that is the way things have always worked in the world, when two people meet one another and collide, there is a negotiation that takes place which is not always fair to all. Usually changes come from those encounters. But what has occurred since the Europeans came is so dramatic that whole societies went extinct by diseases, tribes were imprisoned on reservations, and they were forced to alter their ways of living dramatically.

Still, tribes survived the worst of the catastrophe, or most did, and are now rebuilding. Tribal governments and societies now deserve to begin rebuilding the monuments of their society to empower their people. Healing needs to take place, and concepts and images of empowerment need to be part of what is restored. People need these things to look to for pride in their people, culture and nation.

Some years ago I noticed that this development was missing from the restoration of many tribes, and at my own. As a cultural leader, I engaged in several projects to bring back our tribal names into regular usage, then on erecting tribal monuments within our original lands. I engaged in advisory committees to help drive the development of tribally centered histories and programming. From 2006 to 2014, I was successful in helping name bridges, native centers, schools, and parks. Then numerous tribal histories were erected in our lands to teach everyone our histories. I helped with those projects, writing most of the narrative for the signs. Finally, the ultimate development came with the completing of the tribal museum, and the exhibits curation program. This program became award winning and began numerous projects every year telling different aspects of the tribal story.

There are a few projects which never got instituted. The recognition of tribal holidays and tribal chiefs of the tribe. I was able to get the tribe to post the significant events of the tribe on the various calendars, and reader-boards, but never instituted as official holidays. And- perhaps four years ago I put together list of the chiefs I could find on treaties and documents. This list has never been accepted nor implemented by the tribe. The list is over one hundred individuals. On this Presidents’ Day in the United States 2015, tribal people deserve to know and honor their leaders of the past. Our leaders, chiefs, headmen, and women leaders deserve to be recognized for what they did for the tribe, for their tenacity, for the cost they pay for a thankless job, and for continuing and maintaining the tribe through its hard times.  The jobs do not pay nor reward enough those who take the leadership, and in the end, people tend to forget the history of accomplishments.   Leadership is more than making decisions, but charting a direction, employing all resources, and gaining the support of the people.

Chafon
Chafon, Chief at Champoeg, 1851

 

If we think of the tribe as more than a corporation, and business, with only shareholders, then its a hollow shell. The tribe is in reality a society, a tribal community with great diversity and resiliency. The tribal community is more than the sum of the money or the finances that the tribe invests every year. Cultural development needs to be a equal part of what happens at the tribe on a regular basis. The cultural restoration of life-ways, and an equal investment in healing of the tribe from generations, over-160 years of war, disease, genocide, relocation, death, termination, and the loss of identity. This is a long-term persistent, multi-generational set of issues which deserve the full attention of the tribal government. Recognizing our tribal leaders is only one small part of healing from our history.

Chief Sam of Shastas
Chief Sam, of the Shastas, 1851

 

For those who read this and want to learn of the chiefs of the tribe – Here they are listed. I do not have all of them fully researched, but they all relate to the tribe. There are others as well, please submit information about the following list and the reference to the information. The leaders recognized in history are mostly men, as most-times women’s stories were never taken down nor did the Americans allow women to be in charge of much of anything. But there are significant women leaders from the 1970s to the present that have served the tribe as leaders. (I will work on a companion page that honors the women leaders.)

Gertrude Hudson Mercier
Gertrude Hudson Mercier (Great Grand Mother) Served on Tribal Council.

 

And, If anyone wants to take on a project to link of the names on the treaties with their names at the reservation, please connect with me.

 

Mercier Sisters
Mercier Sisters, top left -Marion, Dorothy, Nadine, bottom left- Norma (Grandmother), Marion

 

Early Chiefs of Grand Ronde in Treaties and Other Documents

Record # Common Name Name variants Title Tribe/band Documents signed
1 Kiakuts Ki-A-kuts, Ki-ac-Kuts, Ki-a-cut (1851) Head Chief, first Chief, Principal Chief (1851) Tualatin (Qualichah), Wapato Lake, Chehalem Band, Tualatin band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Twalaty Treaty April 19, 1851
2  Le Medecin  Le Medecin, Doctor, La Medicine (1851) Second Chief Tualatin band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Twalaty Treaty April 19, 1851
3 Wapato Dave Wapito Dave, Yat-Skaw, or Dave,Yats-kow Third Chief Tualatin band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
4 Kno-tah Subordinate Chief Twalaty Treaty April 19,1851
5 Shap-h, or William First Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
6 Yah-whos alias Thomas Principal Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
7 Es to le alias Henry Subordinate Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
8 Ai-tip alias Antoine Subordinate Chief Yamhill Treaty with Yamhill May 2 1851
9 Peter Sulkey Peter Sulkey (Shelkeah, David) Second Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
10 Cha-ah, or Jesse Third Chief Yamhill Band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
11 Dabo, or Jim, Daboe (1851) First Chief, Principal Chief Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
12 Sco-la-quit, or John, Scho-la-que (1851) Second Chiefsubordinate Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
13 Yah-kow or Kompetine, Yoh-kow (1851) Third Chiefsubordinate Cheluk-i-ma-uke band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Luckamiute Treaty May 2 1851
14 Ah-mo, or George First Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
15 Himpher, or Hubbard Second Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
16 Oh-no, or Tim Third Chief Chep-en-a-pho or Marysville band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
17 Ma-mah-mo, or Charley Peter First Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
18 Quineflat, or Ben Third Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
19 Cha-che-clue, or Tom Second Chief Chem-a-pho or Maddy band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
20 Luck-a-ma-foo, or Antoine, First Chief Che-lam-e-la or Long Tom band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
21 Hoo-til, or Charley Second Chief Che-lam-e-la or Long Tom band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
22 Qui-a-qua-ty, Quia-quaty, Quai-eck-e-te (1851) First ChiefPrincipal Chief Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Treaty with Molalle May 6, 1851
23 Chief Yelkas Yalkus Second Chief Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Treaty with Molalle May 6, 1851
24 Kow-ka-ma, or Long Hair, Kaw-ka-ma Third Chief Mo-lal-la band of Mo-lal-las Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
25 Crooked Finger Subordinate Chief Molalle Tribe Treaty with Molalle May 6, 1851
26 Kiles, or Jim First Chief Calapooia band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
27 Kow-ah-tough, or John Second Chief Calapooia band of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
28 Anta-, An-ta First Chief Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
29 Quil-al-la, or John Second Chief Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
30 Mequah or Dick Winnefelly and Mohawk bands Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
31 Yack-a-tee, or Sam, , First Chief Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
32 To-phor, or Jim Brown Second Chief Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
33 Hal-la-be, or Doctor, Hal-la-le Tekopa band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
34 Pulk-tah Second Chief Chafan band Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
35 Tumulth Tum-walth First Chief Wah-lal-la band of Tum-watersCascades tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
36 Obanahah O-ban-a-hah Second Chief Wah-lal-la band of Tum-watersCascades Tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
37 Chief John Wachino Watch-a-no, Chief John Wachino First Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
38 Te-ap-i-nick Second Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
39 Wal-lah-pi-coto, Wal-lah-pi-cate Third Chief Clack-a-mas tribe Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
40 Oregon City John Lallak, Lal-bick or John, Oregon City John Clow-we-wal-la or Willamette Tum-water band; Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
41 Cuck-a-man-na or David Clow-we-wal-la or Willamette Tum-water band; Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
42 Tiacan Tow-ye-col-la, or Louis First Chief Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
43 Joseph Hutchins Yelk-ma, or Jo, Alquema, Joseph Hutchins, Joseph Hudson Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855, Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
44 La-ham, or Tom, Third Chief Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
45 Joseph Sangretta Joseph Sanegertta, Joseph Sangretta, Senegertta Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
46 Pullican, Pul-i-can Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
47 Te-na, or Kiles, Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
48 Pul-kup-li-ma, or John, Pul-kup-ti-ma Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
49 Sallaf, or Silas Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
50 Hoip-ke-nek, or Jack Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
51 Yepta, Yeptah Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
52 Sat-invose or James, Santiam bands of Calapooias Treaty with the Kalapuya Etc. 1855
53 So-pham Santiam Santiam Treaty of April 16, 1851
54 Coast-nah (1851) Principal Chief Santiam Band of Moolalle Santiam Moolalle Treaty of May 7 1851
55  Chasta Tom Shasta or Chasta Costa
56 Wakaiisisse Columbia River
57 James Selquia (Selqia) Sub-chief Wapato Band
58 Shmohult Klamath
59 LeSekes Klamath
60 Chief Keosnose Columbia River
61 Polk Scott Yoncalla  Headman, leader, and organizer of off-reservation gatherings in the southern Willamette Valley.
62 Chief Jo, Aps-er-ka-har, Jo-aps-er-ka-har, Aps-so-ka-hah, Horse-rider, or Jo Head Chief principal chief Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Amendment 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
63 To-qua-he-ar, Sam To-qua-he-ar, Ko-ko-ha-wah, Wealthy, or Sam, Subordinate ChiefSecond chief Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854, Itchkadowa, Applegate Band of Rogue River Indians (applegate Rpt)
64 Te-cum-tom, Elk Killer, or John, Ana-chah-a-rah, John Fourth Chief Takelma Rogue River 1853Rogue River 1854
65 Chol-cul-tah, Joquah Trader, or George Takelma Rogue river 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
66 Jim Ana-cha-a-rah Subordinate Chief Takelma Agreement with Rogue River 1853, Rogue River 1853, Rogue river treaty 1854
67 Lympe Takelma Rogue River 1853
68 Sambo Third Chief Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
69 Te-wah-hait, or Elijah Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
70 Telum-whah, or Bill Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
71 Hart-tish, or Applegate John Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
72 Qua-chis, or Jake Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
73 Tom Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
74 Henry Takelma Rogue river treaty 1854
75 Louis Nepisank Napesa, or Louis, Na-pe-se, Louis Nepissank, Louis la Pe Cinque Head Chief Umpqua Tribe Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
76 Peter, or Injice , Peter McCoy (McKay?) Second Chief Umpqua tribe Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
77 Chief George, Cheen-len-ten or George Head Chief Umpqua Tribes Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
78 Tas-yah, or General Jackson Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
79 Nessick Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
80 Et-na-ma or William, Billy (Molala?) Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
81 Nas-yah or John Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
82 Absaquil or Chenook Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
83 Jo Yoncalla Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
84 Tom Chief Yoncalla Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854
85 Chief Halo Halo, Halito, Cama-phee-ma, Fearn Head Chief Yoncalla Treaty with Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854?
86 Chief Bogus Chief Bogus Umpqua Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya 1854, Treaty with the Molala 1855
87 Quin-ti-oo-san, or Bighead Principal chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
88 My-n-e-letta, or Jackson Subordinate Chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
89 Tom, son of Quin-ti-oo-san, Subordinate Chief Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
90 Tom, Tal-sa-pe-er Cow Creek band of Umpqua Indians Treaty with the Umpqua- Cow Creek Band, 1853
91 Steencoggy Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
92 Lattchie Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
93 Dugings Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
94 Counisnase Molala Treaty with the Molala 1855
95 Cars Calapooia or Umpqua? Treaty with the Molala 1855
96 Jes-tul-tut, or Little Chief Quil-si-eton band, of the Chasta tribe of Indians, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
97 Ko-ne-che-quot, or Bill Na-hel-ta band of the Chasta tribe of Indians, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
98 Se-sel-che-tel, or Salmon Fisher, Se-sel-chetl Cow-nan-ti-co, bands of Scotons, Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
99 Kul-ki-am-i-na, or Bush-head, Kul-ke-am-ina, Bushland Sa-cher-i-ton, band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
100 Te-po-kon-ta, or Sam Na-al-ye band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
101 Jo Chief Grave Creek band of Umpquas Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
102 Bas-ta-shin Sa-cher-i-ton, band of Scotons Treaty with the Chasta etc. 1854
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